PBS NewsHour full episode June 11, 2019

JUDY WOODRUFF: Good evening. I'm Judy Woodruff. On the "NewsHour" tonight: Democrats in Congress
weigh their options for investigating President Trump, including whether to begin impeachment
proceedings. Then: Another abuse crisis engulfs the Catholic
Church, as nuns begin to speak out about the sexual violence they have endured at the hands
of priests. DORIS WAGNER, Former Nun: Anybody who wants
to become a nun wants to serve and wants to give herself to God. And that's why it's so easy to abuse nuns,
because they are so ready to listen to others who tell them how they are supposed to be. JUDY WOODRUFF: Plus, for millions of adults
in the U.S. who lack basic reading skills, there is already little funding to provide
the services they need. Now budget cuts threaten adult education further
and the second chance that literacy represents. ANITA ST. ONGE, Executive Officer, Portland Adult Education:
Once you learn English, you can participate in a much more meaningful way. You can participate in community meetings
and neighborhood associations. The people who came to Portland Adult Ed 10,
15 years ago are some of the pillars in our community. JUDY WOODRUFF: All that and more on tonight's
"PBS NewsHour." (BREAK) JUDY WOODRUFF: Democrats in the U.S. House
of Representatives have struck the latest blow in their subpoena struggles with the
Trump administration. The House voted today to let committees sue
agencies and witnesses who defy subpoenas. That includes the attorney general, William
Barr, and the former White House counsel, Don McGahn. President Trump insisted again today that
a key part of his deal with Mexico, to curb migration from Central America, has not yet
been revealed. On the White House lawn, he repeatedly held
up a single piece of paper, and said, that's the agreement that everybody says I don't
have. A blown-up image of the document showed writing
that said Mexico agreed to a regional asylum plan and possibly to new laws. Mr. Trump and Democratic presidential candidate
Joe Biden fired new broadsides at each other today on a day when both men campaigned in
Iowa. The former vice president currently leads
the Democratic field. But, as he left the White House, Mr. Trump
called him — quote — "a loser and a dummy." DONALD TRUMP, President of the United States:
I would rather run against, I think Biden, than anybody. I think he's the weakest mentally. And I like running against people that are
weak mentally. I think Joe is the weakest up here. He looks different than he used to. He acts different than he used to. He's even slower than he used to be. JUDY WOODRUFF: Biden answered in Ottumwa,
Iowa, branding the president — quote — "an existential threat to this country." JOSEPH BIDEN (D), Presidential Candidate:
This is a guy who does everything to separate and frighten people. It's about fear and loathing. It's about what he calls people, the names
he calls them. No president has done something like that,
for God's sake. I mean, it's bizarre, and it's damaging. And so I think he's genuinely a threat to
our core values. JUDY WOODRUFF: The two men also traded jibes
over trade policy and who has done more to help farmers. The nation's largest Protestant religious
denomination, the Southern Baptists, opened their annual meeting today focused on sexual
abuse. Hundreds of church leaders and staffers have
been accused of sexual misconduct over the last two decades. The agenda at the meeting in Birmingham, Alabama,
includes making it easier to expel churches that mishandle abuse claims. Meanwhile, U.S. Catholic bishops convened
in Baltimore, under pressure to deal with their own long-running clergy abuse scandal. At issue is how to hold bishops accountable
if they fail to address abuse cases. The head of the conference, Cardinal Daniel
DiNardo, is himself accused of improperly handling a case in Texas. In Hong Kong, new protests geared up against
extradition proposals that could extend China's control over the territory. Hundreds gathered as the city's legislature
opened debate this evening. The crowds oppose extraditing Hong Kong residents
to the mainland to face criminal charges. China defended the proposals. It also rejected U.S. criticism. GENG SHUANG, Chinese Foreign Ministry Spokesperson
(through translator): I want to stress once again that Hong Kong's affairs are purely
China's internal affairs. No country, organization or individual has
the right to intervene. We express strong dissatisfaction and resolute
opposition to the U.S.' irresponsible remarks on Hong Kong affairs. JUDY WOODRUFF: Hong Kong lawmakers are due
to vote on the extradition issue next week. In South Korea, a human rights group says
that it has identified hundreds of public execution sites in North Korea. It cites interviews with more than 600 North
Korean defectors. They report that North Korea's leader, Kim
Jong-un, is using executions as intimidation, with family members of the condemned often
forced to watch. Today, President Trump cited a beautiful,
warm letter he received from leader Kim and said that, under Kim's leadership, North Korea
has great potential. We will have more on North Korea later in
the program. Back in this country, comedian Jon Stewart
blasted Congress at a hearing on Capitol Hill this morning on helping 9/11 responders with
health problems. Stewart is a longtime advocate of that cause,
and he appeared before a House subcommittee. But most of the members were absent when his
turn to speak came and he denounced them. JON STEWART, Former Host, "The Daily Show":
Behind me, a filled room of 9/11 first-responders, and, in front of me, a nearly empty Congress. Sick and dying, they brought themselves down
here to speak to no one. JUDY WOODRUFF: In fact, 12 of the subcommittee's
14 members did attend parts of the hearing, but many had left for other hearings when
Stewart spoke. Tomorrow, the full House is expected to approve
paying health benefits for 9/11 responders for the next 70 years. Flooding rain that occurred this spring may
take a heavy toll in the Gulf of Mexico this summer. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
reports the so-called Dead Zone in the Gulf could reach near-record levels, roughly the
size of Massachusetts. Scientists say that runoff from all the rain
is feeding algae that will rob marine life of oxygen. On Wall Street, the Dow Jones industrial average
lost 14 points to close at 26048. The Nasdaq fell a fraction, and the S&P 500
slipped one point. And the U.S. women's soccer team began its
World Cup title defense today in France with a record-breaking win over Thailand. The final was 13-0. Alex Morgan scored five times to lead the
onslaught. Overall, the U.S. tallied the most goals ever
in a single match in women's World Cup play. The Americans play Chile on Sunday. Still to come on the "NewsHour": how will
Democrats move forward in their investigation of President Trump?; sitting down with 2020
Democratic presidential candidate Massachusetts Congressman Seth Moulton; Catholic nuns speak
out after years of sexual abuse by priests; the hardships faced by adults who lack basic
reading comprehension skills; and much more. Democrats on Capitol Hill are still grappling
with questions of whether to pursue impeachment against President Trump. Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi was asked
today why she supports congressional investigations into the president, but not a formal impeachment
inquiry. REP. NANCY PELOSI (D-CA): So the question you ask,
do we get more by having an inquiry? Some say yes, some say no. Some say… (CROSSTALK) QUESTION: If a majority of your caucus — if
a majority of your caucus wants to go forward with an impeachment inquiry, would you go
for it? REP. NANCY PELOSI: It's not even close in our caucus. QUESTION: But, eventually, if it gets… REP. NANCY PELOSI: Well, you know what? Why are we speculating on hypotheticals? What we're doing is winning in court. The path that we're on is a path that, I think
— look, I want to tell you something. QUESTION: You said you're not on a path to… REP. NANCY PELOSI: There is nothing as much — there
is nothing as divisive in our country, in my view, than impeachment. JUDY WOODRUFF: And our congressional correspondent,
Lisa Desjardins, is here with me now. So, Lisa, we have just heard what Speaker
Pelosi is saying. So tell us, what exactly are the House Democrats
doing or not doing today? LISA DESJARDINS: Well, let's talk about the
resolution that the House passed today. This is a resolution that Democrats refer
to as civil contempt, but what it really does is, it gives Democrats House committee chairmen
the power to move forward with civil lawsuits. They want to do that in order to try to compel
testimony from a court from the witnesses who have so far refused to talk to them. On that list, at the top of that list is former
White House counsel Don McGahn, but also on the list is the current attorney general himself,
Bill Barr. And, basically, Judy, Democrats like this
because it will give this power to committee chairmen. Republicans say that's exactly the problem,
that it's too much power in committee chairmen's hands. It's not clear when these committee chairmen
will file the lawsuits, but I'm sold they're interested in doing it quickly. JUDY WOODRUFF: So, what's the plan the Democrats
have? LISA DESJARDINS: Right. JUDY WOODRUFF: And what is this — what are
these documents that they now are going to have permission to see that have to do with
the Mueller investigation? LISA DESJARDINS: I was able to do some good
reporting on these documents. These documents are available starting today
only to members of the House Judiciary Committee and only in a secure setting. They cannot take them out of the Department
of Justice. Now, also, we don't know how many documents
there will be. They will be given to these members in sort
tranches. They won't get all of them now, because the
Department of Justice has to go through and make sure executive privilege is honored,
all of those kinds of things. But they can start looking at them now. They're not sure what's in there. They think perhaps interview transcripts,
other evidence that led to the Mueller report. We will find out more maybe in days ahead. As to the Democrats' plan, Judy, it now includes
looking at these documents, holding more hearings, probably issuing more subpoenas, and probably,
because of that, going to court more often. So it is a long-term plan, and there is no
plan for formal impeachment inquiries right now. JUDY WOODRUFF: So let's talk about the politics. What are the Democrats thinking in terms of
impeachment, both from inside the caucus, what the members are thinking, but also what
they're hearing from their constituents? LISA DESJARDINS: That's the thing. There is so much pressure on many of these members, especially in the more liberal, more Democratic districts. They say they are getting hundreds of phone
calls from their voters saying, we would like this president impeached. What are you waiting for? It's very different in moderate districts. Swing districts, where Democrats may be vulnerable,
they're hearing impeachment as well, but they're hearing that that perhaps that could be a
negative, that Democrats are moving too fast, look like they're vindictive. But this pressure also is coming from committee
chairmen, who are frustrated because they haven't been able to get the answers that
they want. In all, Judy, they're in a difficult place
right now. They're waiting this out. I did see some discipline today, though. Those who want impeachment inquiries seem
to be cooling down a little bit, going with Pelosi's plan, which is just to investigate
right now. But I saw — I heard this strange quote from
one freshman representative, Dean Phillips. He told me, formality. Formal impeachment proceedings, that's all
relative. I don't know what that means. It just shows they're having trouble really
explaining this to some people. JUDY WOODRUFF: Well, and, as the speaker said,
the country is divided on this. LISA DESJARDINS: That's right. JUDY WOODRUFF: Lisa Desjardins, thank you. Now our series of conversations with candidates
running for the Democratic Party's nomination to take on President Trump. Congressman Seth Moulton of Massachusetts
is a former Marine who served four tours of duty in Iraq. He's making service and national security
central elements of his campaign. And Representative Moulton joins me now. Welcome to the "NewsHour." REP. SETH MOULTON (D-MA), Presidential Candidate:
Thanks, Judy. It's good to be here. JUDY WOODRUFF: So, in this crowded field of
Democrats, more than 20 of you, what makes you the person to take on Donald Trump? We know there are several other candidates
who as young as you are. There are several who have served in the military. What's unique? REP. SETH MOULTON: Yes, I think Donald Trump is
going to be more difficult to beat than many Democrats think. And to do so, we need to build a coalition,
a coalition that includes everybody in our party, plus those independent Obama-Trump
voters and even disaffected Republicans. And that's hard to do. But that's exactly the job that I had in Iraq. And unlike any other candidate in this race,
I led troops on the ground, had to build a coalition of people from all over this country
in my platoon, different religious beliefs, different political beliefs, and get them
to not just vote for me, but actually to risk their lives for what we were trying to do. I'm also taking on Donald Trump in his job,
not just as president, but as commander in chief. I think that's actually where he's weakest,
and I think we need to do that if we're going to win. JUDY WOODRUFF: Let's talk about something
that's before the Congress right now in many ways. And we just talked to our correspondent Lisa
Desjardins. That is the question of impeachment proceedings. You have said they should start right away. Speaker Pelosi is saying, no, let's hold off. Why is her argument wrong? REP. SETH MOULTON: Well, she makes actually a very
good argument on the politics, which is that maybe the politics make this tricky. And I understand that. I accept that that might be the case. But how about just doing the right thing on
principle, on the oath that we swore, not to protect our political party, but to protect
and defend the Constitution of the United States? The principle is very clear here. I mean, half the president's campaign team
is in prison. His campaign chairman is in prison. You can't read even just a page of the executive
summary of the Mueller report and not say that, just by the facts, we should be having
this debate in Congress and before the American people. JUDY WOODRUFF: Let's talk about some of the
issues, Congressman. As I said, you served in active duty. You have just talked about that. It gives you some credentials when it comes
to national security. In a nutshell, what is working with the Trump
administration foreign policy and what's not working? REP. SETH MOULTON: Well, there's almost nothing
that's working. He is putting us in tremendous danger around
the globe. The one thing I will give him credit for is
for standing up to China, because China is a serious long-term economic and national
security threat to the United States. But his tactics are all wrong. Throwing around tariffs, not working with
our allies, it's exactly the wrong approach. We should actually be building coalitions
in the Pacific. I talked about a Pacific version of NATO to
help contain the rise of China and North Korea. We should be strengthening the Iran deal,
not pulling out of it and starting a war. We should be strengthening NATO to deal with
the next generation of threats from Russia, which is — which are coming through the Internet,
not by rolling tanks into Eastern Europe. Trump is doing none of these things. He's just disparaging our allies and, frankly,
cozying up to our enemies all around the globe. JUDY WOODRUFF: Veterans. You have talked, of course, about veterans. You're a veteran yourself. President Trump says that he, more than any
other president, would take care of America's veterans. REP. SETH MOULTON: Well, he's failed to do so. He's failed to do so. I mean, we still have historic rates of veteran
suicide. President Trump thinks that patriotism is
hugging the flag. That's not true. Patriotism is fighting for what the flag stands
for. And this is a man who dodged the draft, let
someone else go in his place when it was turn to serve the country. I think that's wrong. And I think it's a good thing that, unlike
any other candidate in this race, the first time that I have to make a decision involving
the lives of young Americans and live with the consequences of that decision won't be
when I'm sitting in the Situation Room in the White House. I have made those decisions before, and I
can talk with credibility about our national security and making the hard choices about
when we go to war and when we do not. JUDY WOODRUFF: Some domestic issues. Health care. You are for the so-called public option… REP. SETH MOULTON: That's right. JUDY WOODRUFF: … whereas many of your fellow
candidates say they favor a government-run, single-payer health care system. What's wrong with their idea? REP. SETH MOULTON: Well, I'm the only candidate
in the race who actually gets a government-run single-payer system, because I made a commitment
to keep going to the VA for my health care even when I was elected to Congress. And I have seen the good, the bad, the ugly
of that system. That's why I'm with President Obama and his
plan that, admittedly, wasn't passed. Congress changed this when they passed Obamacare. But his plan was to have a public option that
would compete with private sector health care plans. JUDY WOODRUFF: The original plan. REP. SETH MOULTON: That was the original plan. That's what we should have today. I know it because I see it firsthand at the
VA. There are some things the VA does well. They negotiate prescription drug prices, which
Medicare doesn't. But I also had surgery at the VA a few years
ago and was literally sent home that afternoon with the wrong medications. That's not the health care that everybody
in America deserves. JUDY WOODRUFF: The economy. The other Bay State, Massachusetts, candidate
in the race, Elizabeth Warren, has talked about what she calls a wealth tax, a special
tax on people who have assets over $50 million, an annual tax. Do you agree with her about that? REP. SETH MOULTON: It's a nice idea, but it's
not going to work. It's been tried other places in the world. You can't enforce it. What we need to do is enforce the tax system
to make it fair. Right now, almost every American is paying
more taxes than Amazon, Netflix, Delta Air Lines combined. There are true inequities in our tax system. What we need to do is make sure that everybody's
paying their fair share, not pit the poor vs. the wealthy or anything like that, but
just make sure that everybody's on an equal playing field, and, if you do hard work for
a living, you're going to pay the same taxes as someone who's just trading money on Wall
Street. Right now, that's not the case. That's what we need to fix. JUDY WOODRUFF: But Senator Warren argues,
you need to raise this money in order to do some of the great things that Democrats want
to do for… (CROSSTALK) REP. SETH MOULTON: Oh, I agree with that. But the difference is that I'm not going to
put forward a tax system that's not going to work. And her system has been proven ineffective
in other countries around the world. I do like the idea of it, but it's just not
going to work. What will work is raising the corporate rate
back up to 25 percent. I'm for that. It's raising the rate on investment money,
so that the capital gains tax is comparable with what you make in a payroll tax, so that,
if you're doing hard work, you're going to pay the same rate as people who are trading
money. That's basic fairness. That's what we need in the system. JUDY WOODRUFF: Something else. We know President Trump is known for putting
labels on people he doesn't like. Today and recently, he has called Joe Biden
— he called him 1 percent Joe. He called him sleepy Joe. And I think today he called him weak mentally. Today, Joe Biden turned around and called
the president an existential threat. Do you think that Democrats have to come up
with a way to label the president, or can Democrats be above the fray? REP. SETH MOULTON: No, I think that's kind of a
waste of time. I mean, this is the dirty politics that the
president plays. We need to talk about what we're going to
do for the country. We need to put the president in his place,
sure. You can't ignore him. I mean, he's the commander in chief of the
United States, and he's a real threat to our country. That's true. But let's talk about how we are going to lead. Let's talk about how President Trump has failed
in his policies, about how he promised a tax cut for the middle class, but just gave it
to the rich, how he promised to take care of veterans, but he's failed at the VA, how
he promised to give health care to everybody, but his administration has just spent years
trying to take it away. Let's focus on where he's failed as president,
where he's failed as commander in chief, and then talk about our vision for the country. That's what I'm doing in this campaign. JUDY WOODRUFF: Congressman Seth Moulton, looking
to win the Democratic nomination, thank you very much. REP. SETH MOULTON: Thanks, Judy. JUDY WOODRUFF: This week, Catholic bishops
are meeting in Baltimore to discuss the priest sex abuse crisis in the American church and
will vote on measures to hold themselves accountable. Throughout the church, the Vatican has put
in place new rules on reporting abuse, the most concrete steps the Vatican has taken
to counter the crisis. Most of the attention has focused on child
victims, but as special correspondent Christopher Livesay reports from the Vatican, now, in
the MeToo era, there's a growing chorus of nuns speaking out as survivors of abuse as
well. CHRISTOPHER LIVESAY: They're known as brides
of Christ, revered for their quiet service, not for speaking out. But that's beginning to change. DORIS WAGNER, Former Nun: Well, I joined the
convent in 2003, and I was raped in 2008. CHRISTOPHER LIVESAY: Raped, she says, by a
priest. A devout Catholic from Germany, Doris Wagner
was 24 years old, living and working at this religious community just outside the Vatican. DORIS WAGNER: And he came into the room, closed
the door behind him, was sitting on my right hand on the sofa. And he just started to undress me. CHRISTOPHER LIVESAY: When she told her superiors,
she says the priest went unpunished, allowing him to rape her again and again. But this whole time, the perpetrator was still
living in the same… DORIS WAGNER: Yes. CHRISTOPHER LIVESAY: So you had to actually
see your rapist. DORIS WAGNER: Every day. CHRISTOPHER LIVESAY: Every day. DORIS WAGNER: He was preaching at the chapel. He was giving me holy communion. He was sitting at breakfast, at lunch, at
dinner on the same — at the same table. I was ironing his shirts. CHRISTOPHER LIVESAY: Story after story like
Wagner's is reaching a crescendo. In India, a bishop currently faces charges
for repeatedly raping a former mother superior. And a recent investigation by the Associated
Press found cases of abuse across four continents. Now the Vatican can no longer ignore the scandal. This year, Pope Francis made a shocking admission
and acknowledged what had been a longstanding dirty secret of the Roman Catholic Church,
that some priests had been sexually abusing nuns. It was a stain they could keep under wraps,
that is, until the MeToo era. Now religious women are beginning to speak
out, and a NunsToo era has been born. Helping break down that wall of silence was,
of all things, a Vatican magazine, "Donne Chiesa Mondo," or "Women Church World." Its all-women staff included former editor
Lucetta Scaraffia. She listened to hundreds of stories from nuns,
and, in February, published an article accusing the all-powerful priesthood of not only exploiting
them for sex, but, first and foremost, for their labor. LUCETTA SCARAFFIA, Former Editor, "Donne Chiesa
Mondo" (through translator): It happens as high as the Vatican ministries, where women
carry out secretarial work and translations, but they can never be promoted, and the men
get all the credit. They also exploit nuns as Housekeepers. They do all of the cleaning, prepare all the
food, without fixed hours, all day, every day. Priests see this almost as their right to
take advantage of women. CHRISTOPHER LIVESAY: They're not paid for
their work. There's no chance of advancement. Some people have likened this mistreatment
to slavery. Is that accurate? LUCETTA SCARAFFIA (through translator): That's
accurate. Given this habit of servitude, it's easy to
understand how it can morph into sexual exploitation. CHRISTOPHER LIVESAY: Doris Wagner says that's
what happened to her in Rome. DORIS WAGNER: I was only working in the kitchen,
chopping vegetables, cleaning. Anybody who wants to become a nun wants to
serve and wants to give herself to God. And that's why it's so easy to abuse nuns,
because they are so ready to listen to others who tell them how they are supposed to be. Again and again, I was reproached for not
walking right, not looking right, not sitting right, not talking right, because some men
in the house had a problem with me. CHRISTOPHER LIVESAY: When you say they had
a problem with you? DORIS WAGNER: They were, in a way, attracted
to us. CHRISTOPHER LIVESAY: And this was your fault? DORIS WAGNER: It was our fault. CHRISTOPHER LIVESAY: She says it was also
her fault when she reported the priest's advances to her female superior. DORIS WAGNER: She became furious. She literally jumped on her feet and was shouting
at me, and she was very angry with me. And she said: "You are dangerous for him. Leave him alone." LUCETTA SCARAFFIA (through translator): They
tell them, keep quiet, or our congregation will be persecuted. These women can't even contemplate leaving,
because they don't have any alternatives. They have no trade, no support group. They have severed ties with their families. So they are forced to endure this abuse. That often leads to pregnancy, and the priests
or bishops force them to have abortions. CHRISTOPHER LIVESAY: So, nuns are forced by
the fathers of these children, by priests, to have abortions? LUCETTA SCARAFFIA (through translator): Yes. And these poor women now have to live with
the anguish of having committed a mortal sin. We have many testimonies from nuns who had
more than one abortion in this way. CHRISTOPHER LIVESAY: Testimonies that became
too much for the Vatican to handle, she says. Soon after they were published, the director
of the Vatican newspaper, Andrea Monda, told her that he would now be sitting in on the
editorial meetings of her women's magazine. Monda denies any interference in the editorial
process. LUCETTA SCARAFFIA (through translator): There
was an effort to suffocate our voice. So we decided, before we have suffocated,
it would be better for us to resign. CHRISTOPHER LIVESAY: And almost all of the
women did indeed resign. Change, she says, is happening, thanks to
nuns speaking out. This year, the Vatican held an extraordinary
summit on sex abuse by priests. Some of the most powerful testimonies there
came from nuns, such as Sister Veronica Adeshola Openibo from Nigeria, who read the riot act
to a room full of the most powerful men in the Catholic Church. SISTER VERONICA ADESHOLA OPENIBO, International
Union of Superiors General: I think of all the atrocities we have committed as members
of the church. I'm saying we, not they, we. CHRISTOPHER LIVESAY: Openibo sits on the executive
board of the International Union of Superiors General, which counts some 450,000 women religious
leaders. It's recently called on nuns across the world
to report abuse, and held a rare meeting in Rome, where Pope Francis, surrounded by nearly
1,000 sisters, once again confessed that priests are abusing nuns. POPE FRANCIS, Leader of Catholic Church (through
translator): I'm aware of the problems. It's not just the sexual abuse of nuns. You didn't sign up to become some cleric's
housekeeper, no. CHRISTOPHER LIVESAY: On the sidelines of the
meeting, the executive board agreed to an impromptu discussion with me. SISTER VERONICA ADESHOLA OPENIBO: The church,
as a church, has had so many cases and has been defending itself, like on a football
field. CHRISTOPHER LIVESAY: Can you provide any insight
into what the pope could do to address and try fix this problem? WOMAN: I think I know what we could do. The future is to create a culture of care,
care at every level, an open space. It's not shameful. SISTER CARMEN SAMMUT, International Union
of Superiors General: And also to be able to say wherever we need to say it who the
perpetrator was, because we would not want that person to continue to hurting other sisters. SISTER SALLY HODGDON, International Union
of Superiors: We can be a dangerous memory. We can call the church to what they are professing
that they want to see changes made, but they don't happen. CHRISTOPHER LIVESAY: Right after the meeting,
Pope Francis made a surprise announcement, and issued a new rule, calling on local dioceses
to create public and easily accessible offices to receive abuse claims. The rule also lays out a way to proceed when
prelates are accused of a cover-up or carrying out abuse themselves. It's perhaps the pope's most concrete attempt
to battle abuse. But critics say the law has a major weakness:
It still keeps the handling of cases within the church, as opposed to involving outside
authorities, and doesn't detail any specific punishments for prelates, like the one who
raped Doris Wagner. DORIS WAGNER: And they should make sure that
everybody who is either a perpetrator or has protected perpetrators is legally persecuted. CHRISTOPHER LIVESAY: Something that never
happened to her rapist. Instead, she says he's still a priest in the
same community today. The trauma was so unbearable, she says she
almost committed suicide one day when she was high up on a balcony inside the Papal
Palace, right in front of the pope. DORIS WAGNER: And I could jump on the square. It would have been so easy. And my — you know, I had my leg already halfway
up the wall. CHRISTOPHER LIVESAY: Instead, she decided
to speak out. It was a long process that eventually led
to her leaving religious life. Today, she works as a headhunter back in her
native Germany, and hopes that young women entering the convent today do so with open
eyes. DORIS WAGNER: She should be aware that sexual
abuse of nuns exists, and that when — as long as victims don't speak out, perpetrators
will just go on. So, I actually have the responsibility to
speak. CHRISTOPHER LIVESAY: For the "PBS NewsHour,"
I'm Christopher Livesay in Rome. JUDY WOODRUFF: Adults often go back to school
to get a better-paying job. But one important and often overlooked segment
of the population are those who struggle to read or do basic math. They can't read a street sign, a pay stub
or a menu. Every year, thousands of these individuals
overcome shame and fear and go back to school. But inadequate funding and long waiting lists
have made their struggles even harder. Maine is one of the few states where the governor
has proposed increasing funding for adult education. Special correspondent Kavitha Cardoza of our
partner Education Week reports on those efforts. It's part of our regular segment, Making the
Grade. CAROL PALMER, Adult Learner: The two-digit
numbers from my — by my… KAVITHA CARDOZA: Carol Palmer is 63. She graduated high school years ago, even
though she couldn't read or write. CAROL PALMER: I always read backwards. And I ended up going to special ed class because
I couldn't do the work, and I didn't get no help to do it. KAVITHA CARDOZA: Palmer developed several
coping skills to hide the fact she couldn't read. CAROL PALMER: If I went to, like, the grocery
store and I couldn't know how to spell peas, I would find a picture, and then I would know
it was that. KAVITHA CARDOZA: Gail Senese heads adult education
in Maine. She says a lot of people hide the fact they
can't read. They're so ashamed. GAIL SENESE, State Director, Maine Adult Education
Programs: We have had students who didn't even want to tell a spouse for years that
they were kind of faking it. No, I don't like to read. I would rather watch television. Or you pay the bills. It's just easier that way. It's isolating, because you don't want your
secret to be found out. KAVITHA CARDOZA: Palmer's at the third-grade
level now, and dreams of being able to read books to her grandchildren. She's not alone. ROBYN RAYMOND, Director, Spruce Mountain Adult
& Community Education: Spruce Mountain adult education has grown almost 200 percent in
the last three years. KAVITHA CARDOZA: Robyn Raymond runs this program. She says the increased demand for classes
is because local paper mills went to automation or moved jobs overseas. Also, there's less demand for paper. So, positions that paid well even if you didn't
have a high school diploma vanished. ROBYN RAYMOND: A month after I started, Verso
paper laid off 300 workers from their mill. A year later, they ended up laying off another
200 workers. KAVITHA CARDOZA: Mill closings caused a ripple
effect throughout this region. ROBYN RAYMOND: It does tend to look like a
ghost town. Here's the site of the Otis mill, which has
been gutted. And it's run down, so it's a scrapyard. KAVITHA CARDOZA: The need for adult education
isn't just concentrated in Maine, where manufacturing was the backbone of the middle class. Hundreds of adult education centers across
the country help with everything from high school completion to resume writing to job
training. But an area that's often overlooked is basic
reading and math. SHARON BONNEY, Chief Executive Director, Coalition
on Adult Basic Education: Thirty-six million adults in the U.S. lack the basic literacy
skills that they need. KAVITHA CARDOZA: Sharon Bonney heads the Coalition
on Adult Basic Education, a national nonprofit. SHARON BONNEY: These are folks at the lowest
literacy levels. They can't find a job. Or if they find a job, it's at entry level,
minimum wage jobs. KAVITHA CARDOZA: She says, of the 36 million,
adult education programs across the country only serve 1.5 million because of funding. Federal dollars have not kept up with inflation. SHARON BONNEY: Historically, funding has actually
been about half of what it was just 15 years ago. So we are only able to serve a percentage
of what we were 15 years ago. KAVITHA CARDOZA: State and local funding has
also seen cuts. Bonney says some people don't realize how
big a need there is. Others feel adults have already had a chance
at an education. A Trump administration proposal for next year
has called for an almost 25 percent cut to state adult education programs. Advocates say that would be devastating. Some states already have long waiting lists. Some have cut back classes, and others have
had to increase student fees. Many adult learners have an added challenge. They need to learn to speak English. ANITA ST. ONGE, Executive Officer, Portland Adult Education:
These are our graduates from last year. KAVITHA CARDOZA: Anita St. Onge is the director
of Portland Adult Education, which serves 2,000 students, mostly immigrants. Some were doctors and lawyers in their home
countries. Others never got a chance to go to school. St. Onge says they offer classes from 8:00
in the morning to 8:00 at night. ANITA ST. ONGE: Some of our classes have 30 in a classroom,
so they're quite full. Our students have lives. They have children, they have families, they
have jobs. Sometimes, they have two and three jobs. CLASS: I have a fever. KAVITHA CARDOZA: This beginning English class
allows students to practice speaking. DIVINE MUSHIYA, Adult Learner: I remember
the challenge was, every day, we have to learn one word. KAVITHA CARDOZA: Twenty-seven-year-old Divine
Mushiya is from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. DIVINE MUSHIYA: When I came here, all I knew
to say was hi, good morning. And even when you go out and people try to
talk to you, you cannot answer them, because you don't understand what they say to you. That was really hard. KAVITHA CARDOZA: She starts work in a factory
at 4:00 in the morning, so she can come to classes at night. She's slowly getting more fluent. DIVINE MUSHIYA: When you learn English outside,
you don't know vocabulary. You don't know how to use correctly the word. So coming here was really helpful for me. When my English get better, I get promotion. Yes, it's really great. CLASS: He has a backache. KAVITHA CARDOZA: St. Onge says her students
say they want to feel more integrated into the fabric of social life. ANITA ST. ONGE: Once you learn English, you can participate
in a much more meaningful way. You can participate in community meetings
and neighborhood associations. The people who came to Portland Adult Ed 10,
15 years ago are some of the pillars in our community. KAVITHA CARDOZA: Advocates also say giving
adults a second chance at an education makes economic sense, better jobs, more taxes, less
reliance on social services. Adults who are poorly educated are also less
likely to be involved in their child's education, and less likely to volunteer or vote, all
of which have implications for the entire country. Lisa Crawford can trace her family back five
generations in Maine. She's 45, and struggled through school before
dropping out. She couldn't fill out forms, couldn't read
road signs, couldn't help her kids with schoolwork. LISA CRAWFORD, Adult Learner: I felt really
upset and just kind of stuck in the box of not having that education that I wanted. I felt worthless. KAVITHA CARDOZA: Three years ago, she enrolled
in adult education classes and received her high school diploma. Now she's a school custodian, a job she wouldn't
have qualified for in the past because she needs to be able to read and write every day. LISA CRAWFORD: You have to know everything
that's labeled because of — some chemicals can be really harmful. Some, you can't mix together. KAVITHA CARDOZA: Crawford orders cleaning
supplies, reads machinery manuals, and fills out accident reports. She says her life now is a dream come true,
a stable job with benefits. LISA CRAWFORD: If I didn't have that, I wouldn't
have my smile today, and it — always smiling. And I can't stop, even if I cry. (LAUGHTER) LISA CRAWFORD: My life back then, I was an
ostrich in the ground. And my life now, I am bloom and blooming. (LAUGHTER) KAVITHA CARDOZA: For the "PBS NewsHour" and
Education Week, I'm Kavitha Cardoza in Portland, Maine. JUDY WOODRUFF: Ever since the February summit
in Vietnam between President Trump and North Korea's leader, Kim Jong-un, U.S. officials
say the two sides have not been talking. But, today, President Trump revealed he received
a letter from Kim. And Mr. Trump also extended an olive branch
to Kim, a promise not to spy on him, using his family. That news was revealed in a new book out today. And Nick Schifrin has that story. NICK SCHIFRIN: Kim Jong-un has gone from privileged
son of a dictator, to mostly anonymous student in Switzerland, to commander of a military
with a thermonuclear bomb, to scribe of what President Trump calls beautiful letters to
the White House. He is only 35, and leads one of the most opaque
countries on the planet. Perhaps that's why the CIA recruited his half-brother. The book out today reveals that news and tries
to makes clear Kim's history and motivations, and also reveals what life is really like
inside Korea. It is called "The Great Successor: The Divinely
Perfect Destiny of Brilliant Comrade Kim Jong Un." The honor — the author is Anna Fifield, The
Washington Post's Beijing bureau chief. And it's a pleasure to have you. Thanks so much for coming on the "NewsHour." ANNA FIFIELD, Author, "The Great Successor:
The Divinely Perfect Destiny of Brilliant Comrade Kim Jong Un": It's great to be here. Thank you. NICK SCHIFRIN: Let us start with the news
today. Kim Jong-nam, Kim Jong-un's half-brother,
was providing information to the CIA. That is something that you first revealed. President Trump was asked about that today. He was also asked about a letter that he's
received from Kim Jong-un. So let's take a listen to that. DONALD TRUMP, President of the United States:
I just received a beautiful letter from Kim Jong-un, and I think the relationship is very
well, but I appreciated the letter. I saw the information about the CIA with respect
to his brother, or half-brother, and I would tell him that wouldn't happen under my — under
my auspices. That's for sure. NICK SCHIFRIN: President Trump saying he wouldn't
recruit a member of Kim's family for spying. Remind us, who was Kim Jong-nam, what did
he provide to the CIA, if we know? And also remind us how he died so publicly. ANNA FIFIELD: Right. So, Kim Jong-nam was the firstborn son of
the North Korean leader Kim Jong Il. So, according to the Confucian hierarchy of
Korea, he should have been the successor, the firstborn son. He wasn't. He apparently fell out of favor, and he put
himself into a kind of quasi-exile after 2001, until his younger brother, Kim Jong-un, became
the leader of North Korea at the end of 2011. And then he seems to have really fallen out
of favor. He started to publicly criticize his brother
in quite oblique terms, but, still, this leader brooks no criticism. And even that was too much. And what I discovered in the course of reporting
this book was that he had become an informant for the CIA, and that he was supplying information
about the regime to American intelligence services. He would meet them in various locations in
Southeast Asia. And, in fact, on the day he died, when he
was killed in Kuala Lumpur Airport with a chemical weapon here, he had $120,000 in cash
in his backpack. NICK SCHIFRIN: He was killed by foreigners. That was the first time the North Korean regime
had done that and done an assassination like this so brazenly. "The Great Successor" is called that, of course,
because you mention Kim Jong-un's father, which he — whom he succeeded. And you talk about how the succession was
risky, and this crackdown on any dissent, even members of his family, was part of Kim
Jong-un's power from the very beginning. And you call him the most Machiavellian leader
of our time. ANNA FIFIELD: Right. So Kim Jong-un was only 27 years old when
he became the leader of North Korea. And this family has kept a hold on this country
for 70 years by propagating this myth that they are some kind of quasi-deities who have
this divine right to rule. So he very much gains his legitimacy from
this family line, from being the scion of this family. So, he was staking his claim to the leadership,
and he wanted to get rid of any detractors, anybody who might rival his claim to be the
leader of the North Korean regime. And his brother, who had the same divine blood
pumping through his veins, was clearly a rival. He dispatched with him. But Kim Jong-un also got rid of his uncle
quite early on, in the second year of his regime. The uncle was accused of having too much power
or trying to amass power. So Kim Jong-un was very kind of shrewd and
ruthless in how he got rid of anybody who could pose a threat to him and his hold on
power. NICK SCHIFRIN: And yet you write how he took
power, unlike his father and his grandfather before him, at a young age. Kim Jong-un was so young, and, therefore,
he had to do more than survive. He had to give — as you put it, give his
own people a sense of a better life. And that, in part, led to economic changes
and an opening up that we haven't seen before, right? ANNA FIFIELD: Very early on, in 2013, he said,
North Koreans will never have to tighten their belts again. So, first of all, he tended to the nuclear
program. Now that that's all done and he has a credible
nuclear threat, he's really turning all of his attention to the economy as a way to prove
that life is getting better under him. So he is tolerating markets on a much greater
basis than ever before, and there is a real kind of nascent entrepreneurialism in North
Korea, where individual people are able to go out and to trade and make money for themselves
and to be more independent of the state. That is changing, and it's moving in that
direction. And this has given people more freedom from
the state and more ability to make their own living. NICK SCHIFRIN: And Kim Jong-un himself, talk
about how secluded his childhood was. And one of your interesting sources, talk
about the Japanese chef, Kenji Fujimoto. ANNA FIFIELD: So, Kim Jong-un, when he was
growing up, didn't have anybody else to play with. So when this Japanese sushi chef arrived to
make sushi for the royal household, Kim Jong-un seems to have kind of taken a shine to him,
as somebody interesting and eccentric and spent a lot of time with him. They flew kites together. He went out fishing with Fujimoto. And Fujimoto told me, when I met him in Japan,
that he would catch fish from the boat, and then Kim Jong-un would come along and take
the fishing pole off him and brag about, "I caught a fish, I caught a fish," and, like,
take the credit for this. So, he was somebody who was used to being
doted upon and having his own way from a very early age. NICK SCHIFRIN: So, fast-forwarding to today,
does the boy who was doted on and who claimed to catch fish that he didn't actually catch,
is he going to consider giving up his nuclear weapons in talks with the U.S., and is he
going to keep talking with the U.S., do you think? ANNA FIFIELD: There is no way he is giving
up his nuclear weapons. He has put so much energy into this nuclear
program, because it gives him a lot of legitimacy in this militaristic regime. It's a way for him to placate the hard-liners. Often, something that is not recognized about
North Korea is that this nuclear program is a great source of national pride amongst the
ordinary people. Even amongst people who defect and don't like
the regime, they're still proud that North Korea has managed to develop this nuclear
program that South Korea and Japan have not. It was in 2011, when he was taking over the
leadership, that the Arab Spring was happening, and he saw what happened to Moammar Gadhafi
in Libya, who had given up his nuclear program in a deal with the U.S. So, I cannot see a situation where he gives
it up entirely. But I can see a situation where he gives up
something, he makes some gestures. He may give up some hardware, some of these
missiles, because I think he does want these diplomatic talks with the United States to
continue, because he wants sanctions relief. He wants to grow the economy, and he can't
do that while the sanctions are in place. NICK SCHIFRIN: An insight into Kim's motivations,
into North Korea itself. The book is called "The Great Successor." The author is Anna Fifield, the Beijing bureau
chief of The Washington Post. Thank you very much. ANNA FIFIELD: Thank you. JUDY WOODRUFF: We continue our series now
on the best summer entertainment. Tonight, Jeffrey Brown gets a preview of what's
to come the big screen, from the blockbusters, to movies not to miss. It is part of our arts and culture series,
Canvas. JEFFREY BROWN: As always, blockbuster series
will dominate many theaters this summer, but there are also a number of smaller films that
may whet your appetite. To tell us more, Ann Hornaday, chief film
critic for The Washington Post, is back with us. She joins us this evening from Baltimore. Ann, nice to see you again. ANN HORNADAY, Film Critic, The Washington
Post: Thank you. JEFFREY BROWN: So, start with some of the
biggies. "Avengers: Endgame" is out, and it's really
big. What else do you see coming that you're interested
in? ANN HORNADAY: Well, this is the summer of
the sequel, prequel, reboot, remake. I counted more than a dozen movies that are
based on something else and something that we're all familiar with. But two that really I have very high hopes
for are "Toy Story 4." Anything with a 4 at the end fills me with
fear usually. But the people at Pixar are so good with their
stories. They really make sure that script is solid
before they proceed. So I do have cautiously high hopes for that
one. And "The Lion King," a live-action remake
of the classic animated Disney tale, this is directed by Jon Favreau, who I think just
did a spectacular job with "Jungle Book," sort of in a similar mode. So — and this has just an amazing voice cast
with Beyonce and Donald Glover and many others. So those are the two I have my eye on. JEFFREY BROWN: How about slightly smaller
scale? I mean, one that's getting a lot of attention,
of course, is "Rocketman," the Elton John film. That one. What else? ANN HORNADAY: Yes, that's a lot of fun. One that I'm — I have kind of a crush on
right now is a raunch-com called "Booksmart." It's a coming of age movie, in the tradition
of a "Fast Times at Ridgemont High" or "Dazed and Confused" or "Superbad." But this thing features two young women, Beanie
Feldstein and Kaitlyn Dever, who are really charming as these two girls seeking a night
of debauchery in modern-day L.A., the directorial debut of the actress Olivia Wilde. I think she really makes a very assured, very
graceful directing debut with this movie. So I would encourage people to check this
one out. It's a lot of fun. JEFFREY BROWN: There's one called "The Kitchen,"
right? ANN HORNADAY: I am very intrigued by this. This stars Tiffany Haddish and Melissa McCarthy,
as well as Elisabeth Moss, but in a drama, and this is set in the 1970s in Hell's Kitchen. It's based on a graphic novel. So it's not based on a true story, but it
sounds very reminiscent of The Westies and the gangland wars and competitions that were
going on in Hell's Kitchen in that era. It's such an evocative atmosphere and environment
that I — and I can't wait to see what Melissa McCarthy and Tiffany Haddish do in a more
dramatic setting. JEFFREY BROWN: And then if we go even smaller
to some of the independents, there were a few you were interested that came out of Sundance,
right? ANN HORNADAY: Yes, there were two in particular
that got a lot of buzz coming out of Park City in January. One was called "The Last Black Man in San
Francisco," starring Jimmie Fails, directed by Joe Talbot, who got an award at Sundance
for this movie. It's about a man sort of navigating this rapidly
gentrifying San Francisco that is being priced out of any kind of livability for normal people. It reminds me thematically a little bit of
"Blindspotting," a movie that I was a huge fan of last year. And, again, this got incredible positive buzz
coming out of Sundance. I'm very much looking forward to that. Another one, called "The Farewell" with Awkwafina,
who a lot of people remember from her scene-stealing performance in "Crazy Rich Asians," this is
sort of a serio-comedy about a Chinese family who learn that their grandmother is facing
death and want to give her a wedding to sort of send her off without telling her that she's
actually dying. And so it kind of reminds me a little bit
of maybe "The Big Sick" in terms of the tone. So I have high hopes for this one, too. JEFFREY BROWN: What about documentaries? Strikes me that there's so many good ones
out, and they continue to come. What's new, what's coming? ANN HORNADAY: One is called "Maiden," which
just made a sensation at the Toronto Film Festival last year. It's about the first all-female team to sail
in the Whitbread yachting race, a really grueling, long sailing race. And it just — it has captivated audiences
on the festival circuit. And then one that I saw recently at the Maryland
Film Festival here in Baltimore, again out of Sundance, is called "Cold Case Hammarskjold." And it's about the death of the U.N. chief
Dag Hammarskjold in 1961, which for many years has been suspected to have been a murder. And this movie takes the true crime genre
into completely untold territory. It's very unsettling, very well done and a
really excellent — I think, excellent piece of nonfiction storytelling. JEFFREY BROWN: Let me just ask you briefly,
Ann, does summer matter anymore as a season? How do studios think about it? How do you, as a critic, think about it? What do we look for in the summer now? ANN HORNADAY: Well, I do think it matters. And the season has been extended. But what fascinates me is that it has really
become a documentary season. I mean, last year, the summer saw these breakout
hits, like "RBG," "Won't You Be My Neighbor?," "Free Solo," "Three Identical Strangers." And I guess the term of art for this is counterprogramming,
right? So, if people don't really want to go to a
spectacle or a blockbuster, it's a chance for these smaller movies that connect on a
human level and become really big hits and punch far above their weight. So, that's always what I look forward to. JEFFREY BROWN: All right, Ann Hornaday of
The Washington Post, thanks very much. ANN HORNADAY: Thank you. JUDY WOODRUFF: So many movies, so little time. And that is the "NewsHour" for tonight. I'm Judy Woodruff. Join us online and again here tomorrow evening. For all at the "PBS NewsHour," all of us,
thank you, and we'll see you soon.

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