University Challenge. Asking the questions, Jeremy Paxman. APPLAUSE Hello. There are eight places in the quarterfinal stage of this competition and six of them have already been taken. The seventh will go to whichever team triumphs tonight and the losers will be cast into oblivion. Now, the team from Selwyn College, Cambridge had a close first round match against Manchester University with the result only being decided in the final moments when Selwyn, having taken the lead for the third time, refused to let it go and had 190 points at the gong to their opponents’ 160. They knew about Heraclitus, dystopian fiction and the music played to soothe the savage breast when a call to the local council is put on hold. With an average age of 20, let’s meet the Selwyn team again. Hello, I’m Afham Raoof, I’m from Colchester in Essex and I’m reading Natural Sciences. Hi, I’m Hannah Warwicker. I’m from Huddersfield and I’m reading Classics. And their captain. Hi, I’m Joshua Pugh Ginn from Manchester, and I’m studying for a PhD in Classics. Hello. My name’s Charles Cooper. I’m from Bedford and I’m reading Natural Sciences. APPLAUSE The team from St Peter’s College, Oxford led throughout their first round match against the University of Sussex, winning convincingly by 205 points to 150. They knew about Belshazzar, Bathsheba and classical music on YouTube, but may have usefully employed the time since we last saw them brushing up on monoliths and 16th-century monarchs. Also with an average age of 20, let’s meet the St Peter’s team again. Hello. I’m John Armitage. I’m from Lancaster and I’m reading Mathematics. Hi. I’m Ed Roberts. I’m from London and I’m studying History. – And their captain.
– Hello. I’m Gabriel Trueblood. I’m from London and I’m studying Medicine. Hello. I’m Spike Smith. I’m from Maidenhead and I’m reading Mathematics. APPLAUSE Fingers on the buzzers. Here’s your first starter for ten. The Manchester-born Col Needham published the first version of which reference work online in October 1990, selling it to Amazon eight years later? It now claims to be the world’s leading film website. BUZZER – IMDB.
– Correct. APPLAUSE So, you get a set of bonuses on Charlotte Bronte. Originally a surname, which girl’s name became popular after Charlotte Bronte gave it to the title character of her novel of 1849? The character’s parents chose it in expectation of a son but they still gave it to the child when she was born a girl. – Shirley.
– Correct. Bronte dedicated the second edition of Jane Eyre to which fellow novelist, probably unaware that he, like Rochester, had a wife certified insane? Charles Dickens. No, it was Thackeray. Chapter 38 of Jane Eyre begins with which four words stating the heroine’s relationship to Rochester in the final part of the novel? – “Reader, I married him.”
– Correct. Ten points for this starter question. Meanings of what term include, in pharmacology, a drug whose action is the opposite of that of another drug… BUZZER – Antagonist.
– Correct. APPLAUSE Bonuses this time on virology, St Peter’s. Which group of enveloped viruses have RNA as their genome and require reverse transcriptase to generate DNA which is integrated into the host cell’s genome? – Retroviruses.
– Correct. HTLV is a retrovirus that causes a leukaemia. For what do the letters HTLV stand? THEY CONFER Hodgkin’s Tumour Lymphoma Virus. No, it’s Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus, or Human T-Cell Leukaemia Virus. And finally, for five, examples being HIV 1 and 2, what term from the Latin for slow denotes retroviruses that produce illnesses characterised by a delay in the on-set of symptoms after infection? – Lentiviruses.
– Correct. Ten points for this. John Morley as Lord President of the Council, and John Burns, the President of the Board of Trade, were the two cabinet ministers who resigned from the government upon which event? BUZZER – The start of the First World War.
– Correct. The declaration of war, yes. Your bonuses are on names now, St Peter’s. In each case, the surname of the first person described is the given name of the second. For example, CS Lewis and Lewis Carroll. I want the first name or initials and the surname of both the people described. Firstly, the pen name of the Australian-born author of Vernon God Little and the 17th-century French dramatist whose works include Horace and Le Cid. THEY CONFER – Nominate Smith.
– DBC Pierre and Pierre Miquelon. No, it’s DBC Pierre and Pierre Corneille. Secondly, the actor who became MP for Hampstead and Highgate in 1992 and a US abstract expressionist who developed action painting. Steve Jackson and Jackson Pollock. No, it’s Glenda Jackson and Jackson Pollock. And finally, the poet who wrote Lycidas and Comus, A Mask, and the Nobel economics laureate who co-authored Free To Choose. – Pass.
– That was John Milton and Milton Friedman. Ten points for this. In probability theory, what distribution was introduced by the British statistician William Gosset and is used estimating the population mean of a set of measurements when the sample size is small. BUZZER – Student’s T-distribution.
– Correct. APPLAUSE Right, the bonuses this time, you’re going to get your first set, Selwyn, they’re on Physics and Chemistry. In each case, name the element whose symbol is identical to the symbolic form of the physical formula described. For example, force times radius would be upper case F, lower case R, so the answer would be Francium. Understand? By the same process, which element is Newton’s gravitational constant times the charge on the electron? – Germanium.
– Correct. Which synthetic element may be expressed as entropy times the acceleration of gravity at the earth’s surface? – Seaborgium.
– correct. Finally, current times refractive index gives the symbol of which element? – Iridium.
– No, it’s Indium. Right, for your picture starter and the first picture round, you’re going to see a map marked with a motor racing track. Ten points if you can name it. BUZZER Silverstone. It is Silverstone, yes. APPLAUSE It’s home to the British Grand Prix and was also the location of the first ever Formula 1 Grand Prix, although in that instance, it was billed the European Grand Prix. For your bonuses you’ll see a map of locations that have all held Grands Prix alternatively billed from the country in which the track was actually located. Firstly, what is the name of the track at A? It held the Luxembourg Grand Prix in 1997 and ’98, despite being over 100km away. – Hockenheim.
– No, it’s the Nurburgring. Secondly, the city marked B. It was the location of the Swiss Grand Prix in 1982. – Nominate Raoof.
– No, it’s Dijon. And finally, what is the name of the Grand Prix held at C for many years? – San Marino.
– Correct. Ten points for this. Which English king summoned the so-called “Mad Parliament”? It agreed to provide the king with revenue in return for an agreement to abide by a programme of reform that became known as the Provisions of Oxford, although this was eventually annulled under the Dictum of Kenilworth in 1266. BUZZER Henry III. Henry III is correct. APPLAUSE St Peter’s, these bonuses are on streets. What street name forms the title of a play by JM Barrie set during the time of the Napoleonic Wars and first performed two years before the opening of Peter Pan? – Shaftesbury Avenue.
– No, it’s Quality Street. A metonym for the banking sector, which street in the city of London appears in the title of a work of 1873 by Walter Bagehot in which he examines the state of the banking system? Threadneedle Street. No, it’s Lombard Street. Which ubiquitous US street name was used by Sinclair Lewis for the title of a 1920 novel set in the fictional provincial town of Gopher Prairie? Main Street. Correct. Ten points for this. “A novel is balanced between a few true impressions “and the multitude of false ones “that make up most of what we call life.” Which Canadian-born writer said these words on accepting the Nobel Prize for Literature… BUZZER Alice Munro. I’m afraid you lose five points. On accepting the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1976, the year after the publication of his novel Humboldt’s Gift. Come on, you either know this or you don’t, St Peter’s. One of you buzz. I’ll tell you. It’s Saul Bellow. Ten points for this. On a similar latitude to Milan and Venice, Harbin is the northernmost provincial capital… BUZZER – China.
– Correct. APPLAUSE These bonuses, St Peter’s, are on pairs of words that differ only in the presence of a final letter D, for example, goo and good. In each case, give both words from the definitions. Firstly, affectedly quaint, sentimental or pretty, and a rough surfaced woollen fabric, often with flecked colours. – Twee and tweed.
– Correct. Secondly, small, loose stones forming the slope of a mountain, and a long and often tedious speech or piece of writing. Scree and screed. Yes. Algonquian language of Central Canada, and a word that may follow apostles, Athanasian or Nicene. – Cree and creed.
– Correct. Ten points for this. Answer as soon as your name is called. In terms of its order on the periodic table, which element corresponds to lambda in the Greek alphabet, 31 in the list of primes and kilo in the NATO spelling alphabet? BUZZER Carbon. – Anyone like to buzz from Selywn?
– BUZZER – Magnesium.
– No, it’s sodium. Ten points for this. “95% of it is common sense deliberately made complicated.” Referring to his own field of study, to what subject did these words of the Korean-born academic Ha-Joon Chang… BUZZER – Economics.
– Economics is correct, yes. APPLAUSE Right, your bonuses this time are on British birds whose generic and species names are the same, an example being Cygnus cygnus, the whooper swan. Give the common name of the bird in each case. Firstly, Troglodytes troglodytes, a small songbird whose binomial refers to its habit of disappearing into cavities or crevices to seek insects. – Thrush.
– No, it’s the wren. Butteo butteo, secondly, a common bird of prey, quite large and with broad wings, its plaintive mewing call resembles that of a cat. – Buzzard.
– Buzzard is correct. Finally, Lagopus lagopus, a medium sized game bird found on heather moorlands. – Red grouse.
– Correct. Ten points for this. In physics, what state exists if two light waves are superimposed so as to produce interference effects and there’s a constant phase relation maintained between them? BUZZER Constructive interference in phase. No, you lose five points. It can be thought of in terms of both time and space. BUZZER Superposition. No, it’s coherence. Ten points for this starter question. The Fang and the Bapunu are among the ethnic groups of which country on the Equator? Slightly larger than the UK, its capital is Libreville. BUZZER – Gabon.
– Gabon is correct. So you get a set of bonuses this time on lines from films of the 1960s. In each case, listen to the line and name both the film and the actor who speaks the words. Firstly, from a film of 1967, “They call me Mr Tibbs.” Erm, is that… No, it’s not Psycho, is it? Any films from the ’60s. Erm… – No.
– I have genuinely no idea. Psycho, Norman Bates. No, it’s Sidney Poitier, In The Heat Of The Night. From a film of 1960, “Well, er, a boy’s best friend is his mother.” That’s Psycho. What’s the name of the actor? – It wasn’t the actor, it’s character.
– No, it was the actor. You were looking for the actor. What’s his name? It’s, erm… – We don’t know.
– No, I do know. No, I can’t remember. Psycho and Alex Nixon. Alex Nixon, really? No, it’s Anthony Perkins in Psycho. Finally, from a film of 1967, “Mrs Robinson, you’re trying to seduce me, aren’t you?” That’s Dustin Hoffman, and it’s, er, The Graduate. – The Graduate, Dustin Hoffman.
– Correct. Right, we’re going to take a music round now. For your music starter, you’ll hear part of an overture. For ten points, give me the name, please, of the overture, and its composer. STRINGS PLAY BUZZER – The Hebrides Overture by Felix Mendelssohn.
– Correct. APPLAUSE As you know, he was German. A great paean to Scotland there. For your bonuses, three pieces of music inspired by a country of which the composer was not a citizen. All the composers are Russian, and in each case I want the name of the composer and the country from which they took their inspiration. Firstly, for five… RUSSIAN OPERA PLAYS This could be Italy. This could be Tchaikovsky in Italy. – Tchaikovsky and Italy.
– No, it’s Rimsky-Korsakov and India. The Song Of The Indian Guest. Secondly… UPBEAT CLASSICAL MUSIC PLAYS Borodin and China. No, it’s Glinka and Spain. And finally… MEDIUM TEMPO WALTZ PLAYS Tchaikovsky and Italy. If it was a guess, it was a good one. Yes. OK, ten points for this. Published 1932, Aldous Huxley’s novel Brave New World takes place in an imaginary future set in the year AF632. The letter F… BUZZER – Ford.
– Ford, Henry Ford is correct. After Ford, AF. APPLAUSE Right, your bonuses, St Peter’s, are on food crops that originated in the new world. In each case give the common English name of the following. Firstly, thought to have originated in the Andes, a member of the nightshade family whose edible part is known in Chinese by names that translate as horse-bell root and earth bean. Pinto beans. No, it’s the Irish potato. Also of the nightshade family, a culinary vegetable known in Chinese by names that translate as Western red persimmon and foreign aubergine. – Tomato.
– Correct. And finally, the fruit of Persea americana, native to tropical America, its Chinese names translate as butter fruit and crocodile pear. – Pineapple.
– No, it’s avocado. Ten points for this. Proposed in 1927, the Belgian astronomer Georges Lemaitre… BUZZER – Big Bang.
– Big Bang is correct. APPLAUSE These bonuses are on Antarctica. The US McMurdo base in on which Antarctic island? Both the island and the surrounding sea are named after a British explorer born in 1800. – Ross.
– Correct. Two volcanoes over 3,000m in height are located on Ross Island, making it the sixth highest island in the world. In terms of highest peak, that is. For five points, name either one. Prince William. No, they’re Mount Terror or Mount Erebus. And finally, who led the 1907 British Antarctic expedition that landed at McMurdo Sound on Ross Island and made a winter camp at Cape Royds where their hut still stands? – Shackleton.
– Correct. Ten points for this. Which general type of structure is known as “bro” in Norwegian and Danish, and as “most” in Czech and Polish. In Maltese and Welsh, the corresponding word is “pont”. BUZZER – Bridge.
– Correct. APPLAUSE Right, your bonuses this time are on politicians and dystopian fiction. In each case, name the Prime Minister in office when the following were first published. Firstly, for five, Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World. So, he said it was ’32 earlier, so that’s… – Is that Baldwin?
– Yeah, I think so. – Baldwin.
– No, it was Ramsey McDonald. Secondly, George Orwell’s 1984. – Attlee.
– Correct. And finally, Anthony Burgess’ A Clockwork Orange. Late ’60s? Wilson? – Wilson.
– No, it was Harold Macmillan, it was 1962. We’re going to take a second picture round now. For your picture starter you’ll see a painting. Ten points if you can identify the artist. BUZZER Titian? Nope. St Peter’s, one of you like to buzz? BUZZER Monet. No, it’s Whistler. Nocturne In Black And Gold. So, picture bonuses shortly. Ten points at stake for another starter question. Referring to specific parts of a garden plant, what does Robert Herrick urge the reader to gather in the opening line… BUZZER – Rose buds.
– Rose buds is correct, yes. APPLAUSE So, you get the picture bonuses. You’ll recall the starter was Whistler’s Nocturne In Black And Gold. Your picture bonuses, three more nocturnal scenes. Again, in each case all you have to do is to name the artist. Firstly, for five, this Spanish artist. – Goya.
– Goya is correct, The Witches. Secondly, this French artist. – Rousseau.
– It is Rousseau, Carnival Evening. Finally, this Japanese artist. – Hokusai.
– Correct. Ten points for this. Corticotropin, prolactin and oxytropin are among the hormones… BUZZER – Pituitary gland.
– Correct. APPLAUSE Right, these bonuses are on circular motion. If a particle moves with a constant velocity V in a circle of radius R, what is the magnitude of its acceleration? – V squared over R.
– Correct. Given the same conditions, what is the direction of the particle’s acceleration vector? – Towards the centre.
– Correct. In terms of V and R, what is the time taken for the particle to complete one full circuit of the circle? – 2 Pi R over V.
– Correct. APPLAUSE Another starter question. Elected MP for Westminster in 1865, who attempted to extend the franchise to women by an amendment to the 1867 Reform Bill, and later published the essay, The Subjection Of Women? BUZZER Gladstone. – No. St Peter’s?
– BUZZER – JS Mill.
– It was John Stuart Mill, yes. APPLAUSE These bonuses are on bees in literature, St Peter’s. Book four of which work by Virgil deals in part with the life and habits of bees, supposedly a model for human society? – Aeneid.
– No, it’s The Georgics. In which of Shakespeare’s history plays does the Archbishop of Canterbury exalt obedience, noting that honey bees, “teach the act of order to a peopled kingdom?” – Henry V.
– Correct. “Nine bean rows will I have there, a hive for the honey bee, “And live alone in the bee loud glade.” These are the words of which poet in a work of 1893? – WB Yeats.
– It was indeed, in Lake Isle of Innisfree. Three and half minutes to go, ten points for this. Listen carefully. Since 1945, three incumbents have lost US presidential elections. One was George Bush senior. Name either of the other two. BUZZER – Jimmy Carter.
– Correct, the other one was Gerald Ford. APPLAUSE Right, bonuses this time on Tudor warships. What was the name of the ship in which Francis Drake circumnavigated the globe between 1577 and 1580? – The Golden Hinde.
– Correct. What was the name of the English flagship during the defeat of the Spanish armada? More recently the name has been given to several aircraft carriers. – Ark Royal.
– Correct. Finally, which ship sank in the Channel in 1545, having been located in the 19th century, was rediscovered in 1971 and raised in 1982? – Mary Rose.
– Correct. Ten points for this. Listen carefully. Summing the first N positive even integers results in which quadratic expression… BUZZER N squared plus N over 2. No, you lose five points too. ..in which quadratic expression in terms of N? BUZZER N squared plus N over 4. No, it’s N squared just plus N. Right, ten points for this starter question. Give both answers as soon as your name is called. Which two German states share borders with the Czech Republic? BUZZER Bavaria and Baden-Wurttemberg. Nope. BUZZER – Bavaria and Saxony.
– Correct. APPLAUSE Right, your bonuses are on a silicate material now. Kaolinite, the chief constituent of china clay, is a hydrosilicate of which metal? – Aluminium.
– Correct. Kaolin takes its name from a locality in southeastern China near the town of Jingdezhen. With which ceramic product is this town chiefly associated? Porcelain. Porcelain is correct. Around 50% of kaolin mined in the UK is used in the filling and coating of which everyday product? – Come on.
– No, it’s paper. Ten points for this. New Deal is a political party founded in 2013 by Alan Sked as a left-wing version of which party… BUZZER – UKIP.
– UKIP is right. APPLAUSE Your bonuses, Selwyn, are on history. In each case, listen to the pair of European rulers and give the unique full decade during which both were on the thrones of their respective countries. Firstly, William III of England and Louis XIV of France… END OF GAME GONG And at the gong, Selwyn College, Cambridge have 100, St Peter’s, Oxford have 235. APPLAUSE The answer was the 1690s, or course. Well, Selwyn, I’m afraid we’re going to have to say goodbye to you. You were pretty good, I thought, at times, but you never quite hit your stride, did you? St Peter’s, a very impressive performance from you. We look forward to seeing you in the quarterfinals. Many congratulations. I hope you can join us next time, but until then, it’s goodbye from Selwyn College, Cambridge. ALL: Bye. – It’s goodbye from St Peter’s College, Oxford.
– Bye. And it’s goodbye from me. Goodbye. APPLAUSE